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BA (Hons)

3 years 6 years School of Social and Political Sciences Lincoln Campus [L] Validated 300 Points M931

98%of Lincoln students said they were satisfied with this course overall according to the National Student Survey 2015, as provided by

This degree provides an excellent foundation of knowledge and expertise within the subject of criminology.

Students will develop additional skills in IT, Research Methods and extensive presentational skills. They will also gain a high level of competence in a wide range of general and transferable skills, including time-management skills, team working skills, and problem solving and analytic skills.

The course places a strong emphasise upon not merely 'learning about' criminology, but also being able to apply that knowledge to real life issues and problems.


This exciting subject helps students to understand the contested and complex nature of crime, punishment, victims and justice. At the forefront of contemporary debate, the course analyses challenging problems and assesses alternative solutions.

This degree is unique, offering a dedicated, integrated and distinct curriculum. It is organised and taught by a team of criminologists with extensive qualifications and experience.

BA (Hons) Criminology offers specialist modules designed to complement each other and develop specific skills in criminological studies and research.

There are two ways to study Criminology at the University of Lincoln. Students can specialise in Criminology as a single subject or study Criminology on a combined Honours Degree alongside another subject.

Is This Course Right For Me?

If students are looking for a course that provides the foundation for considering some of the most contentious issues in contemporary society, this is the right course.

It also is if students consider the challenging issues which Criminology addresses not merely interesting but worthy of understanding as more complex issues than are 'popularly' though. It is if students wish to take that understanding into the wider world.

This is a subject area that has generated a whole industry of experts. If working in such areas is of high interest to them, then this course may be just the course that students have been looking for.

How You Study

A substantial training in research methods and a thorough grounding in the wider issues of identity, citizenship and social justice is employed to underpin the comparative approach and this is supplemented by an appreciation of policing as dependent on a much broader web of social controls.

Criminology draws heavily from the social sciences to inform our analysis but also consider the reflective potential of considering historical presidents for contemporary events and issues.

Criminology at Lincoln combines aspects of both directed and independent learning. Each module is usually delivered by means of a weekly lecture and an associated weekly seminar. These seminars provide an opportunity for students to consider, discuss and argue about the issues raised in the lecture and engage in critical reflection on set readings relating to such issues.

Students will also have the opportunity to meet with their seminar tutors for individual tutorial sessions to explore in greater detail their own individual learning needs. As well as directed study, students will undertake independent learning utilising traditional library as well as a wide range of electronic resources.

The Level One module Applying Research aims to provide students with the requisite skills for effective independent learning and students can explore primary research activities here with the opportunity to conduct questionnaires and more in-depth qualitative interviews.

Contact Hours and Independent Study

Contact hours may vary for each year of your degree. However, remember that you are engaging in a full-time degree; so, at the very least, you should expect to undertake a minimum of 37 hours of study each week during term time and you may undertake assignments outside of term time. The composition and delivery for the course breaks down differently for each module and may include lectures, seminars, workshops, independent study, practicals, work placements, research and one-to-one learning.

University-level study involves a significant proportion of independent study, exploring the material covered in lectures and seminars. As a general guide, for every hour in class students are expected to spend two - three hours in independent study.

Please see the Unistats data, using the link at the bottom of this page, for specific information relating to this course in terms of course composition and delivery, contact hours and student satisfaction.

How You Are Assessed

A distinctive feature of Criminology at Lincoln is the innovative way in which the degree is both taught and assessed involving:

  • Student-centred work
  • Group-based and individual research projects and assessments
  • Large/small scale and multimedia presentations
  • Case studies
  • Auto-critiques
  • Self-appraisal
  • Vocationally relevant 'live' projects
  • Conferences.

The subject area is therefore well placed to make a significant contribution to the consolidation of important transferable skills, so valued by employers.

Assessment Feedback

The University of Lincoln's policy on assessment feedback aims to ensure that academics will return in-course assessments to you promptly – no later than 15 working days after the submission date.

Methods of Assessment

The way you will be assessed on this course will vary for each module. It could include coursework, such as a dissertation or essay, written and practical exams, portfolio development, group work or presentations to name some examples.

For a breakdown of assessment methods used on this course and student satisfaction, please visit the Unistats website, using the link at the bottom of this page.

What We Look For In Your Application

On the Criminology degree we really value a keen and critical interest in crime, crime control, policing and thus Criminology. This may be symptomatic of what is a active and inquisitive mind.

Useful reading in preparation for Criminology includes:

  • Carrabine, E. (et al) (2004) Criminology: A Sociological Introduction London: RKP
  • McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds.) (2001) Controlling Crime, Sage, London
  • Muncie, J. and McLaughlin, E. (eds.) (2001) The Problem of Crime, Sage, London
  • Pearson, G. (1983) Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears, Macmillan, London.


Throughout this degree, students may receive tuition from professors, senior lecturers, lecturers, researchers, practitioners, visiting experts or technicians, and they may be supported in their learning by other students.

For a comprehensive list of teaching staff, please see our School of Social and Political Sciences Staff Pages.

Entry Requirements

Applicants should have a minimum of 300 UCAS Tariff points from a minimum of two A Levels (or the equivalent). In addition to the minimum of two A Levels, other qualifications such as AS Levels, the Extended Project and the ASDAN CoPE for example, will be counted towards the 300 point requirement.

We also accept a wide range of other qualifications including the BTEC Extended Diploma, Diploma and Subsidiary Diploma, the European and International Baccalaureate Diplomas, and Advanced Diplomas. You can find tariff values on the UCAS website

Applicants will also be required to have at least three GCSEs at grade C or above (or the equivalent), including English Language.
Applications are welcomed from mature students who are studying towards an Access to Higher Education programme. A minimum of 45 level 3 credits at merit or above will be required. We will also consider applicants with extensive relevant work experience.

If you would like further information about entry requirements, or would like to discuss whether the qualifications you are currently studying are acceptable, please contact the Admissions team on 01522 886097, or email

Level 1

Applying Research (Social Sciences)

This module aims to enable students to both recognise and also understand the different methodologies employed in social research and to apply these to their own research project and critique of methods. After completing this module students should be able to:

  • Explain what research is and why we do it
  • Explain how research may be carried out: quantitatively
  • Explain how research may be carried out: qualitatively.

Overall, the aim of this module is to set out methodological skills, and involve students in their application, and to encourage critical reflection on a variety of levels.

Images of Crime and Criminal Justice

The aim of the module is to provide students with a deep understanding of the main components of the Criminal Justice ‘System’, through an analysis of criminal justice policies and practices. The module explores popular images of criminal justice, and contrasts these depictions with an informed examination of a number of the central pillars of this alleged ‘system. The complexities and contradictions which exist within the so-called ‘system’ of criminal justice are drawn out. The reality of criminal justice mechanisms are tested against their supposed key principles - such as the due processes of law, justice and fairness. The relationship between images of crime and the resulting criminal justice response forms the basis of the Module, and it is hoped that this introduction will encourage students to consider the extent of the so-called ‘problem of crime’ and the limits of current criminal justice ‘solutions’.

Key Social Science Concepts

This module explicitly adopts an interdisciplinary approach to core questions of relevance to today’s society. It will provide a knowledge and understanding of key social science thinkers and concepts pertinent to all of the disciplines taught within the school. It will provide a wider understanding of theoretical approaches in Social Science, organised around a variety of significant thinkers (sample thinkers might include: Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Erving Goffman, Karl Marx, Howard Becker, Stan Cohen) and important concepts (for example, gender, race, sexuality and so on). In doing so, it will provide a broad theoretical grounding that will tie in with other modules at level one and feed into core modules at levels two and three. Students will apply these concepts and theories to contemporary social issues as well as drawing on knowledge from their own discipline(s). Throughout, students will be encouraged to think critically about the ideas presented and to examine social problems in the light of a range of academic perspectives.

Social Issues and Social Justice

This foundation module examines some key contexts and practices of social policy in the UK. It provides an overview of contemporary British society and some of its pressing issues and challenges. It explores how social policy, as a broad framework of welfare, justice and rights agendas and interventions has sought to address these issues and challenges. This is set in historical and comparative context. The module highlights the importance of understanding how social policies are framed, made and implemented and how these can be analysed within understandings of societal inequality and poverty.

Level 2

(Re)Reading the Sociological Canon I (Option)

This module analyses some of the seminal works which have been significant to the academic development of sociology. This module will examine a series of articles and books which are of sociological significance and have emerged from the early 20th Century into the 21st Century.

Students will explore a variety of classical and contemporary texts, with the aim of providing them with an in-depth understanding of sociological themes and theories across time. This will build on understanding acquired from the level 1 module Sociological Imagination.

(Re)reading the Sociological Canon II (Option)

This module analyses some of the seminal works which have been significant to the academic development of sociology. This module will examine a series of articles and books which are of sociological significance and have emerged from the early 20th Century into the 21st Century.

Students will explore a variety of classical and contemporary texts, with the aim of providing them with an in-depth understanding of sociological themes and theories across time.

Applying Criminology

The aim of this module is to develop the rudimentary and student-centred grasp of 'crime' developed through the more general approach to 'law, crime and order' fostered at foundation level and to subject it to more sustained theoretical, political and practical interrogation. The focus upon crime is a dual one; in that it is at once a subject accessible via direct and indirect experience and one that has the potential to display the interplay between theory and practice. Above all, the module aims to explore the way in which the emergence of Criminology as a discipline is of theoretical, practical and political importance. ‘Applying Criminology?’ examines different public images and theoretical conceptions of crime and criminal justice and the variety of ways in which Criminology can be constructed and used. As such, it addresses the context of ideas about crime and punishment and the theoretical underpinnings of contemporary perspectives on, policies for, and alternatives to, 'crime' control. The module subjects to particular attention the conditions for the generation of a 'crime control' agenda.

Approaches to Qualitative Research (Option)

The module will build on the teaching of qualitative research in Applying Research in year 1. In particular, it will take students through all the stages of the research process as well as introduce a range of methodological approaches to qualitative research. The module will begin with an overview of the theoretical foundations of qualitative research before moving into the more applied issues of research design, ethics, questions, samples and fieldwork strategies. Thereafter, the course covers some of the main approaches. The penultimate section covers the analysis, including the use of specialist software, and writing up of qualitative research. Particular attention will be paid to the interpretation and presentation of findings. The final sessions explore the potential and problems of data storage and secondary analysis of qualitative research. Throughout the course assessing and achieving quality in qualitative research will be a key concern.

Approaches to Quantitative Data Analysis (Option)

The module will build on the teaching of quantitative research in Applying Research in year 1. It introduces students to a range of approaches to secondary data analysis, including multiple linear regression. The students will initially learn about different levels of measurement before covering descriptive data analysis in some detail. The second part of the course will cover issues of correlation and multiple regression. There will be strong emphasis on the presentation of findings with particular reference to graphical methods of different kinds (e.g. Rosling’s gapminder software). While the focus of this course is on secondary analysis, attention will be paid to different forms of data collection. Datasets such as Understanding Society (the new UK Household Longitudinal Survey replacing and subsuming BHPS), British Crime Survey and the British Social Attitude Survey are likely to feature prominently in the course. However, students will be encouraged to familiarise themselves with a range of data sources specific to their subject and interests. The main analysis software used for this course is likely to be SPSS.

Comparative Politics and Policy (Option)

The use of comparative methodology in the social sciences is neither value-free nor uncontroversial. Nevertheless this module is based on the belief that comparative methodology can be a useful tool for social and political analysis. The module therefore begins with a consideration of the development of comparative approaches, the use of a range of comparative techniques and the validity of comparison. It proceeds to an examination of some basic concepts that can help provide an understanding of the bases upon which governments are built and operate, such as political culture, legitimacy and authority. The analytical and theoretical tools from the early parts of the module are then applied empirically to consider a variety of features of contemporary politics and policy, particularly in the context of democratic transition in different regions of the world, including (but not limited to) Asia, Africa, Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Social policy issues such as health, education, immigration and poverty are examined in the context of a country or region’s political climate. The issues and countries studied may vary to take account of staff specialisms and political and social developments around the world.

Conceptualising Sex Work (Option)

This module will explore the cultural, practical and theoretical developments relating to sex work, drawing upon national and international examples. Taking a comparative approach, this module seeks to understand how scholars conceptualise sex work within different competing feminist frameworks and how these ideas reflect, or are at odds with, popular public and political discourse. As well as situating sex work within the wider night-time economy, the regulation and governance of different modes of sex work will be considered, in order to understand sex work in a cultural and political context.

Conflict Analysis (Option)

This module focuses on the nature and causes of armed conflicts. It provides an overview and a basic framework for understanding the evolving field of conflict analysis. Initially the module focuses on theoretical debates and highlights different types and concepts of conflict. The main contributing factors to the emergence of conflict, especially civil wars, are outlined, and students are offered an understanding of the dynamics of conflict. The second part of the module introduces students to types of intervention to conflicts and methods of conflict resolution. The students have the opportunity to explore conflict resolution methods such as mediation, negotiation, collaborative problem solving, peacekeeping operations, and other applications.

Criminology in the Professions

This is a vocationally oriented module where students reflect upon the relevance of criminological knowledge and skills in a variety of employment options. This is supported by close engagement with a variety of criminal justice and allied practitioners working in the field. The aim of the module is to set out how the methodological, academic and practical skills gained from students’ degree can be applied to their professional development culminating in the production of a professional development file. In partnership with the university’s careers service students are encouraged to explore potential links between researching for academic work and researching for relevant career applications. Students develop of a reflexive log, and additional components that are designed to develop their awareness of professional practice in occupations related to your criminology degree.

Debating Welfare States (Option)

Nation states have always been involved in the welfare of its citizens. However post-1945, ‘welfare states’ emerged and have endured across developed and developing societies with particular priorities and programmes for social protection and human wellbeing. Understanding the appeal, operation and impact of these agendas is crucial for meeting future societal challenges. This module aims to i) enable students to analyse the priorities and developments of welfare states over time and ii) through analyses of these developments equip students with the tools to interpret key contemporary social, political and economic trends. Given the growing importance of the welfare state as a key site in these trends, the module is likely to be of practical benefit to undergraduate students in careers other than academia – among them politics, the civil service, the NGO sector and journalism.

Health Law (Option)

This module is designed to firstly develop and expand on issues of negligence and personal autonomy (assault and consent) first encountered by students in tort law at level I and dealt with in this module in the clinical context. Building on this the module will consider the regulation of clinical practice; and the interface between the law, ethics and regulation focusing on emerging areas of difficulty. Both caselaw, statute law, regulations and current matters of media and policy controversy will be considered.

Ideas and Issues in Political Economy (Option)

The module provides an introduction to the development of key ideas, principles and institutions in political economy. Taking a broadly historical approach, the module is structured around understanding the development of political economy both by examining the scientific contributions of and issues addressed by its key figures (e.g. Smith, Marx, Keynes, Hayek) while placing such contributions in historical context. Thus the ideas of the ‘great’ political economists will be applied to contemporary and current controversies, including policy debates.

Overall the module will provide students with a grounding in and understanding of the key principles, ideas and controversies in the history of political economy with a view to understanding their relevance to the current era. A particular focus will be the contested role of the market and the state in the social and historical construction of the political economy.

Ideology into Practice (Option)

This module examines the impact (and sometimes the lack of impact) of ideology on practice in social policy. Whilst the focus of the module is on the experience of the United Kingdom, comparison with other states will be made where appropriate.

The module begins with a brief introduction to ideology and the ways in which it can be seen as relating to social policies, their formulation and implementation. It moves on to consider perspectives on social ‘problems’ and the relationship with social policies and an exploration of the meaning and purpose of ‘social policy’ and how it might relate to other ideas and functions of the state, such as social control. Moving on to a combination of subject specific and more general topics, it considers the impact of ideology on social policy in the post-war period, including the relationship between pressure groups and policy, the impact of ‘crises’, and the growing extension of key social policy concepts to broader policy domains. It concludes with a discussion of possible futures.

Methodologies for Independent Study

This module introduces qualitative methodological skills, and develops the student’s ability to apply to their work. The module builds upon knowledge and skills learnt at level one from Applying Research, and demonstrates the application of qualitative methodology to disciplinary areas.

The practical techniques learnt at level one are further developed through this focused programme of a more analytical and theoretical approach to qualitative methodology, which focuses on independent study skills. From this you will be encouraged to create a viable independent study proposal and reflect on the learning process.

Model United Nations (Option)

This module is designed to provide an introduction to the activities of the United Nations, as well as providing an understanding of the practices of international diplomacy and governance. The module will use a discussion of contemporary international issues to explore some of the protocol and procedures of diplomacy. It will also provide students with an introduction to issues of international organization and international law and treaty-making. All of this will assist students in preparing for their role as a 'diplomat' at a Model United Nations conference.

Policing Crime and Deviance (Option)

This module examines core questions about the increasingly diverse forms of policing of crime and deviance. It considers how and why we have policed different forms of crime and deviance and why those changes have occurred and competing character of many of the positions involved. It analyses the many types of criminal justice responses to crime and deviance and the major theories which are used to explain such. The module examines the political issues which shape policy responses to crime and deviance focusing specifically on stereotypes in respect of gender, sexuality, ‘race’ and class. It critically considers the ‘popular’, political and professional demands placed policing bodies and the difficulties in reconciling these divergent expectations.

The question of who is responsible for policing, crime and deviance is confronted by the explicit attention to the various ways in which crime control and the responsibility for crime are subject to complex forms of privatisation. Relevant themes of increasing pluralisation; centralisation, decentralisation and analysis of theoretical frameworks and ideas which shape responses are addressed through exploration of key themes and topics. The drift towards private forms of security highlights the way in which public and private spaces are designated and the issue of ‘Where’ crime and deviance are pursued and the limits of law are, in this respect, brought to the fore.

Political Parties (Option)

This module will cover a variety of issues relating to political parties in the United Kingdom. The political science literature covers a wide variety of topics around parties. Amongst those which are examined in this module are the following; the historical development of parties; the role of parties in terms of mobilisation of support, electioneering and campaigning, recruitment of personnel; representation of the electorate and issue-based politics; and the partisan divide. These will be examined primarily within the context of a discussion of the three major parties within the British political system including their development, their ideological tenets and their contemporary positions. However, towards the end of the module these will be set against the position of other parties within the UK including the Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru and the Northern Irish parties, to which will be added a comparative perspective, drawing upon the roles and experiences of parties in Western Europe.

Psychology in the Criminal Justice Process (Option)

The issue of crime needs to be understood across a range of disciplines and this module is designed as an introduction to how psychology might contribute to our understanding of the various actors and organisations within the criminal justice process.

The module is divided into three sections in relation to the criminal justice process; these are: ‘personalities in criminal justice’; ‘decision making in criminal justice’ and ‘solutions in criminal justice’. In studying these issues, the students will be introduced to knowledge from the disciplines of psychology and social psychology and will be asked to consider how this knowledge might be used to inform our understanding of relevant criminal justice themes. Information about what psychological research might be useful in explaining the behaviours of actors and the decisions they then make within the criminal justice process will be studied, along with how particular theories are applied in modern practical ‘solutions’ to the ‘problem of crime’.

Students will be required to critically compare and contrast the theories and methodologies employed in creating psychological knowledges, with those commonly used in the discipline of criminology and in this context, they will be expected to recognise both the contributions and problems presented by the use of psychological knowledges in the criminal justice process. Students will also be required to undertake their own research project around a psychological theme; apply a statistical analysis to the data they collect and then consider how their results might impact on a relevant criminal justice issue.

Social Engagement (Option)

This module encourages students to undertake one or more external activities relevant to their programme of study, and to engage in critical reflection of the nature of this activity as it relates to society as a whole and to their personal development as individuals.

Relevant activities will involve significant interaction with an organisation outside the University providing an appropriate experience additional to the student’s programme of studies, such as voluntary work or mentoring within a service-providing organisation.

Sociology of Law (Option)

This module is designed to study the relation between law and society that is law as a social institution and law as a form of social regulation. It explores both classical and contemporary theoretical contributions to the Sociology of Law and some specific issues to be analysed include, law and social control, law and social change, the institutions and practices of law and the influence of social categories on the application of law.

Sociology of Religion (Option)

This module introduces students to the principle theories and methods of research in the sociology of religion. Religion will be defined and situated within broader social structures and processes and the changing influence of religion in western society since the early nineteenth century will be explored. To this end consideration will be given to appropriate historical and theoretical perspectives. The module will also develop an understanding of the place of religion in the modern world , the rise of secularisation as well as the many different forms of religious expression that has occurred in recent times due to immigration.and communication technology. Students will also explore the role, functions and significance of religion in the world today.

Study Abroad (Option)

The School believes that an option to study overseas is a valuable educational opportunity for our students. The optional year is intended to:

  • enable students to benefit from studying within a cross cultural environment;
  • expose students to a wider academic and cultural experience;
  • enhance their future employment opportunities;
  • by increasing their cultural and professional mobility.

This module is optional for students within the School of Social and Political Sciences. Study Abroad is a year long module which enables students to spend a year studying abroad at one of the University’s approved partner institutions. Eligible students must have completed their second year of study to a satisfactory standard and successfully completed the application process for the year abroad. During the year spent abroad, students share classes with local students and study on a suite of locally-delivered taught modules which have been approved in advance by the University. Upon their return, as part of the assessment for this modules, students are required to critically reflect upon their experience of living and studying in a different cultural environment and the skills acquired.

The Vigilant State: intelligence and national security (Option)

While the creation of large intelligence communities and the use of intelligence in support of policy have become established features of the modern nation state, intelligence remains a largely 'missing dimension' in studies of government, politics and policymaking. This module aims to provide students with an introduction to the study of intelligence. It focuses on the basic concepts in intelligence by establishing first what is meant by intelligence, before examining the various elements of intelligence - collection, analysis, counterintelligence and associated activities such as covert political action. Drawing on examples from a diverse range of states, the module will also examine debates about the relationship between intelligence and policymaking, and the challenges of providing democratic accountability for intelligence agencies. Through an examination of intelligence documents the module will also provide students with an appreciation of the various means by which intelligence is fed into the policy process through, for example, the production of warning indicators and national intelligence estimates.

Understanding the European Union (Option)

This module will provide students with an understanding of the history, institutions, policies and general workings of the European Union. Beginning with an overview of the history of European integration, students will also learn in more depth about critical moments in EU history such as waves of enlargement, treaty negotiations (and failures), and other critical junctures. The historical section of the course is then linked with an examination of the major theories of European integration, themselves tied in with the history of the Union, including an overview of the state of the art in EU theorisation including the sociology of the EU. Moving on to the workings of the main institutions, students will come to understand how the EU adopts legislation and other decisions, and the evolution of decision-making procedures to the present day. Various policies of the EU will provide focal points for deepening this procedural knowledge and exploring the political issues surrounding EU decisions. How European Union decision-makers are influenced by external actors will form another focus for this course, with theories of interest representation and case studies on business and civil society influence presented.

Welfare Policy and Work (Option)

The module examines the ways in which the state, through its social security and labour market policies, has affected the lives of those in paid work and those outside it. It offers an examination of how policy influences individual transitions from claiming social security benefits to being in paid work (and vice versa), and how it provides income for people who are currently outside employment. It provides an historical overview of welfare policy and discussion of the various types of benefits currently available to different groups of people. It examines various ideological and theoretical approaches to issues around work and welfare. A particular focus of the course is on the emerging all-Party consensus on welfare policy, in which mainstream politicians agree that benefits should no longer be paid to people of working age who refuse work or training, and that governments must ensure that jobs pay more than out-of-work benefits.

Work and Society (Option)

The work people do, paid or unpaid, defines how people live and plays a significant role in identity formation. This module explores the relationship between work and society, drawing on different classical and contemporary sociological theories of work. It seeks to examine key areas within the sociology of work such as concepts of work, work-place inequalities, resistance and the reality and challenges of engaging in paid work in the 21st Century.

Youth Justice (Option)

This module provides students with an opportunity to explore the youth justice system in depth, including the theoretical and historical contexts of youth justice, contemporary policy and practice developments and the salience of political agendas in constructing responses to young people’s offending behaviour. The module will expect students to demonstrate a good ‘nuts and bolts’ understanding of how the system operates, alongside more critical analysis of the impact of doing ‘justice’ on children’s rights and welfare. The module will also encourage reflection upon the roles of key personnel and opportunities for career development.

Youth, Culture and Resistance (Option)

This module prompts a sociological enquiry into youth cultures, addressing issues of identity and meaning within the behaviour, consumption and lifestyles of young people. Reflecting upon contemporary narratives of youth as dangerous or out of control, the module aims to investigate the plurality of youth cultures, and the diversity of young people’s cultural practices. Structural and political dimensions of ‘culture’ are therefore addressed, allowing the student to navigate complex discourses of exclusion and resistance within the context of ‘post-modernity’ and contemporary global transformations. Central to the module is the exploration of strategies of control, focusing on policy responses to ‘deviant’, ‘vulnerable’ or ‘alienated’ youth. This will be located within the broader context of the politics of law and order, investigating the political utility of ‘youth’ in the formulation of moral panics and the implications for the lifestyles and well-being of young people.

Level 3

Advanced Quantitative Analysis (Option)

The module will build on the teaching in Approaches to Quantitative Data Analysis in year 2 and on Applying Research in year 1. In particular it will enhance the understanding of a variety of different, more sophisticated statistical approaches. Initially the focus is on multiple regression modelling of ordinal and categorical variables. Thereafter, the course will cover different aspects of survey and questionnaire design before moving on to more advanced techniques such as cluster and factor analysis. The final part will engage with analysing change over time using longitudinal analysis methods. A number of surveys will be used as examples throughout the course such as Understanding Society and the European Social Survey. However, students will be encouraged to familiarse themselves with a range of data sources specific to their subject and interests. Students will learn to use the appropriate software to carry out the different analysis techniques. Like in the preceding module, there will be strong emphasis on the interpretation, communication and presentation of results.

Analysing the Policy Process (Option)

Building upon Understanding the Policy Process, this module requires students not only to continue to develop their knowledge of a range of perspectives on the policy process but, in addition, to use these to analyse a case study relevant to their degree programme. Where Understanding the Policy Process places its emphasis on important models and perspectives, this module explores a range of current ideas which have a significant impact upon the making and implementation of policy, such as the concept of partnership, notions of participation, and issues of accountability.

Body Politics (Option)

This module introduces the students to different paradigms of the 'body' and 'embodiment'. Recent research suggests that our understandings and our relationship with our own and other ‘bodies’ has been and is continuing to undergo radical changes. This module will explore these ongoing developments in Western and non-Western cultures and societies. Throughout we will be concerned to link theoretical accounts of the ‘body’ with developments in contemporary societies. The module will further demonstrate the relevance of conceptions of ‘body’ in different academic and professional arenas. The module will equip the students with the skills to identify and critically explore a diversity of current representations of 'body' in everyday life.

Children, Families and the State (Option)

This module examines the nature of family policy as it has developed for different family forms and for different purposes, and considers why an understanding of family policy is important in the twenty-first century. This is set in historical, ideological and comparative contexts.

The module begins with an introduction to the changes to family structures, family theories and ideologies and family composition. These three sessions provide the background for more the more in-depth examination of the relationship between the state, families and children that follows over the next three lectures focusing in turn on financial support, service provision and regulation. The changes, concepts and tensions identified in the initial sessions are then explored in more depth in the following four sessions by focusing on particular issues based on the research interest of staff. The topics reflect the research interests of members of staff at the time as well as current topics/ developments and are therefore likely to change over time. Students are expected to learn about the complexity of family policy and are asked to demonstrate their understanding in an essay and through making a policy proposal to improve a particular area of family policy as part of the assessment. The policy proposals will be presented and discussed in the final two sessions.

Community and Conflict 1 (Option)

This module is all about communities – in particular, communities that are poor, disadvantaged, isolated or 'socially excluded'. In recent years, interest has been re-awakened in the whole idea of community and in what sorts of policies might be most effective in helping communities and solving their problems. This has happened for a number of reasons: New Labour policy, concerns about crime and disorder, increased emphasis on self-help, fears of racial segregation and ‘no go’ areas, rural decline, and the failure of government interventions over the years that have taken no account of the feelings of local people. The new focus on community is often associated with a number of beliefs: for example, that it is better in principle for local people to 'do it for themselves'; that the involvement of communities is essential if run-down areas are to be renewed or regenerated; and that neither market forces nor the state can on their own offer satisfactory long-term solutions to our social problems. This module will look critically at all these beliefs and come to conclusions about their validity. Community and Conflict II focuses on the application of theory, concepts and perspectives developed in Community and Conflict I to particular areas of public policy making including policy implementation.

Community and Conflict 2 (Option)

This module is all about communities – in particular, communities that are poor, disadvantaged, isolated or 'socially excluded'. In recent years, interest has been re-awakened in the whole idea of community and in what sorts of policies might be most effective in helping communities and solving their problems. This has happened for a number of reasons: New Labour policy, concerns about crime and disorder, increased emphasis on self-help, fears of racial segregation and ‘no go’ areas, rural decline, and the failure of government interventions over the years that have taken no account of the feelings of local people. The new focus on community is often associated with a number of beliefs: for example, that it is better in principle for local people to 'do it for themselves'; that the involvement of communities is essential if run-down areas are to be renewed or regenerated; and that neither market forces nor the state can on their own offer satisfactory long-term solutions to our social problems. This module will look critically at all these beliefs and come to conclusions about their validity. Community and Conflict II focuses on the application of theory, concepts and perspectives developed in Community and Conflict I to particular areas of public policy making including policy implementation.

Counselling and Guidance Skills (Option)

The module will introduce you to a range of contemporary models of counselling and guidance practice. The module will be delivered by qualified and experienced practitioners, who will promote and enable you to develop your own skills and attitudes that can be of value in a variety of human service settings. A key feature of the module will be enabling you to make judgements as to the appropriateness of using such techniques in different scenarios.

Family Law (Option)

This module examines the law in England and Wales relating to the family and in particular the law on marriage, divorce, cohabiting couples, financial and property rights, rights and duties relating to children. This module seeks to provide students with an interest in this area the opportunity to develop a detailed understanding of the practical law relating to the family and to examine ethical issues and the wider policy considerations that lie behind it.

Global Civil Society (Option)

Notions of national civil society have a long history in political writings. Since the 1980s and the ending of the Cold War, however, renewed academic interest in popular involvement in political life and the ideas and development of global civil society is evident. This module will address the historical origins of global civil society (e.g. the anti-slavery movement), together with diverse and competing contemporary meanings of global civil and ‘uncivil’ society. It will also investigate the impact of this discourse on notions of sovereignty, democracy, citizenship and power and the relationship of transnational social movements to global institutions, forces of globalization, states and individuals. The module will examine case studies of global civil society (e.g. the anti-globalization movement, the anti-trafficking movement), to determine their structure, tactics and effectiveness. Fundamental questions addressed will include the degree to which ‘global civil society’ should be considered a single entity and what impact it has (and could have) on global governance.

Harm, Agency and Regulation (Option)

This module investigates the variety of ways in which harmful activities are executed and regulated and evaluates the role of criminalisation within these forms of misconduct. The competing claims of ‘individual/organisational’ agency feature strongly in this module as do the variety of frameworks and the feasibility of imposing ‘realistic’ sanctions. The module makes substantial use of the literature on social harm theory; organisational and corporate crime; white-collar crime/professional wrongdoing; international/transnational crime; and harmful activities – or neglect - by the state. Identifying and then criminalising or regulating economically and intellectually powerful groups as both criminal and or professional is a complex task, and the module will draw upon a range of examples to reflect this.

Human Rights (Social Sciences)

This module addresses the general ideas of Human Rights and focuses in particular on the critical reading of Human Rights as one single universal paradigm. The practical critique of Human Rights proposed in this module is founded on the belief that Human Rights are important and worthy of protection. The three main propositions outlined in this module relate to the presentation of Human Rights as if they are universal; the notion that they pertain to a logic which focuses on the individual to the neglect of solidarity and other social values; and the argument that the concept of Human Rights derives from a reasoning which is far too abstract.

The academic interdisciplinary approach of this module should be emphasised, as the aid of several disciplines will be called upon, mainly but not exclusively, politics, legal philosophy, sociology, anthropology, international relation studies, post-colonial studies and criminology, in order to deconstruct the notion of the universality of Human Rights.

Independent Study (Criminology)

The Independent Study preparation will be focussed through the ‘Methodologies for Independent Studies’ module which will familiarise students with methods of research in relevant areas. As part of the Methodologies for Independent Studies module assessment, students will be required to prepare and submit an Independent Study Proposal during semester B and appropriate supervisors will be allocated at this stage. Therefore, the Independent Study module will be guided by a clearly demarcated process of: research proposal; refinement; supervisor allocation; critical comment; initiation of lines of enquiry; implementation and monitoring of research activities over the academic year. Therein student progress will be reviewed in relation to research undertaken, clarity of objectives, report/dissertation plan and the work/chapters undertaken thus far. The teaching support will be ongoing over the academic year; but will be primarily geared to assisting the student on issues/problems such as research methods and ethical considerations, managing and presenting research materials and suitable theoretical approaches in their chosen research area, rather than reviewing and substantively commenting upon written chapters.

International Law (Option)

The aim of this module is to introduce students to a dynamic, constantly evolving area of international law. Students will study legal rules which operate in a much broader theatre than national law, and this will help them develop a greater understanding of a changing world order. The module will examine both theoretical and practical applications of International Law and will provide students with ample scope for research and independent study.

Multiculturalism and Britishness (Option)

The module explores political challenges and debates around the presence of culturally diverse populations in the United Kingdom and examines the role this presence plays in understandings of British and English identities. These identities have been re-worked and expanded, as well as asserted and defended, in light of rising levels and a changing composition of diversity in Britain. The political issues that emerge when identities are revised will be of interest and will be explored in the module from a variety of perspectives and by focusing on national as well as local contestations.

The module will begin by providing a comprehensive overview of identity politics at the national level, taking account of recent episodes of immigration and settlement, the debate over multiculturalism, political claims-making by majority and minority actors and changing majority identities, for example as a result of devolution. It will consider recent phenomena against the background of earlier political decisions and debates regarding post-war migration and post-immigration settlement. It will then use the case of Lincolnshire as an example for dynamics around minority and majority identities and challenge students to explore identity politics at the local level and hands-on. Moving thus to the microcosm of identity politics and aligning itself with the ‘student as producer’ framework, the module will familiarize students with the conceptual background and research-practical toolkit to study expressions of identity, reactions towards difference and the political dynamics that emerge when identities are asserted and contested in contemporary Britain.

New Social Movements (Option)

Social Movements have been key agents of social change in the world and in the development of democracy. This module seeks to understand the significance of these movements, examining political participation and protest outside of ‘mainstream’ traditional politics. Focusing on ‘New Social Movements,’ we will explore whether the concept is still relevant today, the politics of identity, how NSMs construct particular social identities (e.g. gender, age, race) and the different methods they use to engender social change. The module will outline the concept of a ‘new’ social movement, contrasts with ‘old’ social movements and the emergence of ‘new’ social movements in contemporary history. The module will look in depth at specific movements (sample movements might include: the Women’s Movement, the Youth Movement, the the Global Justice Movement, ‘Occupy’ and online activism) in order to facilitate an understanding of the internal complexity of such groups, particularly where groups become transnational. We will think about why people join social movements, how far social movements are ‘anti-political’ and the nature of political participation and representation. In order to enable us to explore these issues in a more sophisticated way, we will draw on diverse and competing academic theories of NSMs and apply these perspectives to the specific movements studied. A reflexive approach to the issues will be taken and students will be encouraged throughout to consider their own engagement in politics (or lack thereof) to shed light on the nature of NSMs.

Parliamentary Studies (Option)

Parliamentary studies aims to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of how the UK Parliament works, in theory and in practice. It will examine Parliament’s twin relationships with the Executive and with the citizen, and will situate these within broader theories and debates about democratic accountability and the nature of representation. The module will look in detail at particular aspects of Parliamentary activity, such as the legislative process, parliamentary questions and debates and the select committee system, and will examine ongoing debates around the operation of Parliament, including House of Lords reform. The module will also examine how Parliament interacts with other legislative bodies, most notably the devolved assemblies and the European Union.

The module also aims to bring students into closer contact with Parliament through handling Parliamentary materials and by facilitating contact with Parliamentarians through, for example an external speaker series, and when possible a visit to Parliament. The dynamic nature of Parliament will also be reflected in the module which will provide students with the opportunity to tracking legislative progress and select committee inquiries during the course of the module.

Penology and Penal Policy

This module aims to locate the theory, practice and history of punishment and penal policy in the context of social control in general. As well as addressing the philosophy of punishment, in terms of core concepts of justice, desert, deterrence, retribution, rehabilitation, reparation etc., it seeks to examine the way in which social control is a fundamental aspect of social relations. Thus it examines legal and non-legal forms of social control and examines the complex interrelationships between the two, together with the historical and practical dynamic of each. A major concern is the control of dangerousness, the self, and risk, through legal and extra-legal means, and the increasingly involved or mixed nature of social and legal sanctions. Current penal practice is subject to theoretical examination, especially in relation to punishment in the community, dangerousness, rehabilitation, monetary sanctions, re-integrative shaming, restorative justice and longer than normal sentencing. The place of the prison is addressed both as a historical feature and as an object of reform/abolition. In addition, the nature and future of imprisonment and alternatives to imprisonment are subject to critical attention. Human rights and the impact of victimology upon penology and penal practice are also a core concern. Finally, the issue of forms and practices of resistance to social control are addressed insofar as they illuminate the nature and meaning of social control within society.

Political Transformations of Russia and China (Option)

This module aims to sharpen analytical skills and broaden students’ knowledge by exposing them to the wide-ranging debates on the problems of transition from Communism. More generally, it aims to provide students with the intellectual equipment to interpret current and future developments in Russia and China. Given the continuing importance of these two states in international relations, this is likely to be of practical benefit to undergraduate students in careers other than academia – among them politics, the civil service, international banking, and journalism.

Psychology, Crime and Criminology (Option)

This module focuses upon the relationship between Criminology and Psychology, how each approaches the problems of criminal or deviant conduct, and their distinctive contributions to criminal justice. A key aim is to analyse the extent to which psychology contributes/detracts from criminological projects. The module considers a range of psychological, psycho-social and psychoanalytic approaches to the study of ‘crime’ and ‘deviant’ behaviour and contrasts these with the predominantly sociological paradigm of criminology. The focus given to critical psychology aims to expose the political nature of different forms of explanation by revealing their ideological basis and biases. The module examines the tension between the instrumental values of control and domination and the possibility of more emancipatory values such as justice, mutuality, and autonomy.

The Colonial Present (Option)

This international relations module explores the ways in which the contemporary international order can be explained as deriving from the global experience of European colonialism and imperialism. It provides students with an account of the nature, politics and consequences of the Western imperial penetration (broadly, from the 15th century onward). The module identifies how the expansion of Europe acted to globalise and entrench certain categories of Western modernity – state, nation, development, political economy – that continue to shape and define contemporary global politics as well as the relationship between the global North and the global South. The module uses these insights to scaffold students’ understandings of ongoing theoretical debates that criticise international relations, development studies and globalization theory as Eurocentric and incomplete. Attention will be paid to the postcolonial critique of disciplinary international relations and to the importance of seeking alternative sources of knowledge about international processes. Throughout, students will be encouraged to identify and reflect upon their own position within these on-going theoretical and disciplinary debates.

The Developing World (Option)

This module takes the politics, economics and societies of the developing world as its subject matter. Necessarily, this involves an engagement with imperial and neoimperial global politics, with the divisions between North and South and the contemporary patterns of global political economy and critiques of the development process. With this by way of context, the module explores a range of contemporary issues confronting the developing world. Case studies are used extensively throughout in order to illuminate theory and to demonstrate the broader relevance of the issues under discussion to the study of international relations. As well as introducing students to a range of non-Western materials and cases drawn from the developing world, the module encourages students to reflect on their own positions as scholars and to explore the politics, pitfalls and potentials of intervention within other societies.

The Politics of Global Health (Option)

Global health policy is an area of growing concern in both theory and practice. Increasingly, health and healthcare issues cross national borders. Political, economic, social, cultural and environmental factors at all levels, from local to global, influence the health statuses of individuals and populations. International institutions (e.g. the World Health Organization), philanthropic organisations (e.g. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) and multinational corporations (‘big pharma’) play key roles in the politics of health, as well as national governments and health systems. This module examines the concepts that shape debates in (and are shaped by) global health, including global health governance and global health diplomacy. It then critically assesses programmes and strategies designed to address global health challenges such as pandemics, infectious and non-communicable diseases, reproductive health, biosecurity and inequalities of health.

The Politics of Masculinity (Option)

This module explores the politics of masculinity in contemporary society. It starts by addressing key theoretical perspectives on gender and masculinity, taking an in-depth look at these concepts, along with related ideas such as ‘hegemonic masculinity,’ ‘heteronormativity’ and ‘intersectionality.’ We will examine important theoretical debates in masculinities scholarship, such as around hegemonic masculinity, whether this is a useful concept and how far it can explain (global) gendered power relations. Students will be encouraged to develop their own critical and informed answers to key questions such as how far gender is a performance (as opposed to biologically determined), how masculinity relates to men (and women), how we ‘know’ masculinity when we see it and how we understand the relationship between gender and other social and political identities (race, class, sexuality and so on). In order to extend and illustrate these abstract questions, we will explore different masculinities and masculinity in different settings. Sample topics covered might include men’s movements, militarised masculinities, masculinity and fatherhood and representations of masculinity in popular culture. As gender is relational, these masculinities will be considered in the light of corresponding constructions of femininity. Overall, the module will aim to ‘make the familiar strange’ and enable students to question their own assumptions, as well as popular and common sense notions of gender.

Understanding the Policy Process (Option)

This module focuses upon the processes of policy making and implementation at both practical and theoretical levels. It introduces students to a variety of models of policy making and discusses the complexities of the distribution of power and decision making, primarily, but not limited to, the field of social policy.

The module encourages students to develop an understanding of a range of ideas that can contribute to the ways in which we analyse policy, and to recognise that these perspectives are themselves contestable and changing. It begins with a consideration of the policy process and different ways of viewing it, including the impact of different approaches under governments from the 1970s, moving on to examine a variety of models of decision making and the range of actors involved in the making and implementation of policies.

War Crimes and Genocide (Option)

This module is constructed as an attempt to understand the ‘anatomy’ of war crimes and genocide – their origins, ideological basis, socio-political contexts, the techniques and technologies used and relevant theoretical perspectives. The module considers the historical, philosophical, political and sociological aspects of war crimes and genocide and for this reason it is particularly appealing to students who wish to develop a wider understanding of academic disciplines such as criminology, sociology, international relations, politics, psychology, law and modern and contemporary history.

The module will include consideration of key case-studies which may include Armenia, Rwanda, Sudan, the Former Republic of Yugoslavia, Cambodia and Tibet. This module will also offer some reflections on responses to genocide and discuss the challenges involved in addressing these particular categories of crimes at the international level.

Special Features

The Single Honours course is relatively unique, offering a dedicated, integrated and distinct curriculum. It is organised and taught by a team of nine Criminologists with extensive qualifications and experience.

One of these Criminology tutors will be assigned to each Single Honours Criminology student as their personal academic tutor to assist in their studies as they progress through each level of their degree. Students on other joint awards are usually assigned a personal academic tutor from their other Joint Honours subject area.

Study Abroad Initiative

Students from the School of Social and Political Sciences have the opportunity to enrol at partner institutions in the USA, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands during the third year of their undergraduate degree programme*.

The Study Abroad Initiative is available to those who have successfully completed level 1 and 2 of their degree and enables students to spend a year studying overseas during what would be their third year of study. During the year abroad the University’s tuition fee will be waived. Students will then return to the University of Lincoln to complete the final year of their degree.

The initiative enables students to experience their subject from a different perspective and to explore different societies and cultures.

*Only a limited number of places are available


Placement Year

When you are on an optional placement in the UK or overseas or studying abroad, you will be required to cover your own transport and accommodation and meals costs. Placements can range from a few weeks to a full year if students choose to undertake an optional sandwich year in industry.

Students are encouraged to obtain placements in industry independently. Tutors may provide support and advice to students who require it during this process.

Student as Producer

Student as Producer is a model of teaching and learning that encourages academics and undergraduate students to collaborate on research activities. It is a programme committed to learning through doing.

The Student as Producer initiative was commended by the QAA in our 2012 review and is one of the teaching and learning features that makes the Lincoln experience unique.


At Lincoln, we constantly invest in our campus as we aim to provide the best learning environment for our undergraduates. Whatever your area of study, the University strives to ensure students have access to specialist equipment and resources, to develop the skills, which you may need in your future career.

View our campus pages [] to learn more about our teaching and learning facilities.

Career Opportunities

Graduates proceed to a range of jobs, training and further postgraduate study in diverse areas including the probation and prison services, health and social services, police authorities, youth work, lecturing, victim support and government departments.

Graduates may choose to continue their studies at postgraduate level.

Careers Service

The University Careers and Employability Team offer qualified advisors who can work with you to provide tailored, individual support and careers advice during your time at the University. As a member of our alumni we also offer one-to-one support in the first year after completing your course, including access to events, vacancy information and website resources; with access to online vacancies and virtual and website resources for the following two years.

This service can include one-to-one coaching, CV advice and interview preparation to help you maximise your future opportunities.

The service works closely with local, national and international employers, acting as a gateway to the business world.

Visit our Careers Service pages for further information. []

Additional Costs

For each course you may find that there are additional costs. These may be with regard to the specific clothing, materials or equipment required, depending on your course. Some courses provide opportunities for you to undertake field work or field trips. Where these are compulsory, the cost for the travel, accommodation and your meals may be covered by the University and so is included in your fee. Where these are optional you will normally be required to pay your own transportation, accommodation and meal costs.

With regards to text books, the University provides students who enrol with a comprehensive reading list and you will find that our extensive library holds either material or virtual versions of the core texts that you are required to read. However, you may prefer to purchase some of these for yourself and you will be responsible for this cost.

Related Courses

Forensic scientists apply scientific expertise to provide impartial evidence in criminal investigations. They work not only in laboratories, but at crime scenes and in courtrooms. Their highly detailed work encompasses elements of chemistry and biology applied in areas such as toxicology, DNA analysis and trace evidence.
The LLB (Hons) Law degree is a popular choice for students looking for an exciting and challenging career. This degree has been designed to encourage students to have a good knowledge of substantive law and to think about law practically. Students reflect upon policy, and the social, political, ethical, philosophical and cultural contexts in which law operates.
This BA (Hons) Politics degree covers domestic and global politics, political theory and international relations. Students explore the political issues of Britain, Europe, America, Asia and the Middle East in their historical and theoretical contexts.
The BSC (Hons) Psychology degree provides students with a strong foundation of knowledge and expertise within the subject.
Few subjects relate as closely to our daily lives as Social Policy. It involves the study of major contemporary social issues such as the provision of healthcare, fairness in the education system, poverty and inequality and the persistence of discrimination of different groups according to gender, race, disability, age or sexual orientation.
On the Sociology degree at Lincoln, you are encouraged to develop a deep insight into the fabric of different societies, groups and political structures. You learn about the changing nature and role of the family unit, how technological advances have transformed the way we interact and what subcultures can teach us about mainstream society.
The BA (Hons) Criminology and Social Policy degree will allow you to study the nature, causes, control and prevention of criminal behaviour that is inevitably at the forefront of political discourse. From healthcare and education to criminal justice and the workplace, social policy examines how decisions are made that determine the way we live. Criminology and Social Policy are interdisciplinary fields that draws on sociology, anthropology, psychology and the law, meaning that you graduate from this programme well qualified for a diverse range of careers.
This combination offers the chance to study for a qualifying law degree while deepening understanding about the causes and consequences of crime.

Tuition Fees

2016/17 Entry UK/EUInternational
Full-time £9,000 per level £12,800 per level
Part-time £75 per credit point  
Placement (optional) Exempt Exempt

For further information and for details about funding your study, please see our UK/EU Fees & Funding pages or our International funding and scholarship pages. [] []

The University intends to provide its courses as outlined in these pages, although the University may make changes in accordance with the Student Admissions Terms and Conditions.